How to do negotiation on Negotiable things? What is Negotiation? Negotiation is the interactive social process in which people engage.
They aim to reach an agreement with another party or parties on behalf of themselves. Negotiation is primarily a common mean of securing one’s expectations from others. It is a form of communication designed to reach an agreement when two or more parties have certain interests. They are shared and certain others that are opposed and a variety of conditions can affect the success or failure of negotiations so the following conditions make success in negotiations more likely:
Identifiable parties who are willing to participate:
The people or groups who have a stake in the outcome must be identifiable and willing to sit down at the bargaining table. If critical party is either absent is not willing to commit to good faith bargaining, potential for agreement will decline.
For productive negotiations to occur, participants must be dependent upon each other to have their needs met or interests satisfied. The participants need either each other’s assistance or restraint from negative action for their interests to be satisfied. If one party can get his/her needs met without the cooperation of other, there will be little impetus to negotiate.
Readiness to negotiate:
People must be ready to negotiate for dialogue to begin. Participants are not psychologically prepare to talk with the other parties then they need to prepare. When adequate information is not available then it must to gather all the information. When a negotiation strategy has not been prepare, people may be reluctant to begin the process.
Means of influence or leverage:
They must have some means to influence the attitudes and/or behavior of other negotiators. Often influence is see as the power to threaten or inflict pain or undesirable costs. But this is only one way to encourage another to change. Asking thought-provoking questions, providing needed information, exercising legitimate authority or providing rewards are all means of exerting influence in negotiations.
Agreement on some issues and interests:
People must be able to agree upon some common issues and interests for progress to make in negotiations. Generally, participants will have some issues and interests in common and others that are of concern to only one party. The number and importance of the common issues and interests influence whether negotiations occur and whether they terminate in agreement. Parties must have enough issues and interests in common to commit themselves to a joint decision-making process.
Will to settle:
For negotiations to succeed, participants have to want to settle. If continuing a conflict is more important than settlement, then negotiations are doom to failure. Often parties want to keep conflicts going to preserve a relationship, to mobilize public opinion or support in their favor. The conflict relationship gives meaning to their life. These factors promote continued division and work against settlement. Negative consequences of not settling must be more significant and greater than those of settling for agreement to be reach.